In the semiconductor industry, we often mention wafers, such as fused quartz wafers, fused silica wafers. Let's take a look at the foundations of the semiconductor industry-Wafers!
The wafer is the basis for manufacturing various computer chips. We can compare the chip manufacturing to the house with Lego bricks, and complete the desired shape (that is, various chips) by stacking one layer after another. However, if there is no good foundation, the house that is covered will come and go, not what you want. In order to make a perfect house, you need a smooth substrate. For chip manufacturing, this substrate is the wafer that will be described next.
First of all, let's first think about the fact that when you are a child, you will have a small round protrusion on the surface of the building block. With this structure, we can firmly stack the two blocks without using glue. Chip fabrication, in a similar manner, holds the subsequently added atoms and substrate together. Therefore, we need to find a substrate with a neat surface to meet the conditions required for subsequent manufacturing.
In solid materials, there is a special crystal structure - monocrystalline. It has the characteristics that atoms are arranged one after another and can form a flat atomic surface. Therefore, using a single crystal to form a wafer can meet the above requirements. However, how to produce such a material has two main steps, namely purification and crystal pulling, and then the material can be completed.
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